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IDDS/Freeze Anniversaries

Detailed Program


Background Papers

MIT Tech and Culture Forum


Nuclear Proliferation

Nuclear Forces

Nuclear Treaties



Other WMD

Conventional Armaments

Security Institutions

Peace-Building Tools


Public Education




About IDDS



IDDS and Nuclear Freeze 25th Anniversary Events
— Celebration, Education, Inspiration

Speaker Biographies

(Speakers are listed in the order in which they first appear in the program.)

Friday 4 pm: Welcome

Dr Randall Caroline Forsberg, Symposium Host
Founder and Executive Director, Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies
In 1980 Dr Randall ("Randy") Forsberg founded IDDS, an independent nonprofit center for research and education on ways to reduce the risk of war, minimize the burden of military spending, and promote democratic institutions. At IDDS, Forsberg publishes the Arms Control Reporter, a monthly reference journal, and she is the series editor of the annually updated IDDS World Arms Database: Holdings, Production, and Trade. Forsberg has authored or co-authored: Abolishing War: Culture and Institutions (with Elise Boulding,, 1998), Nonproliferation Primer (MIT Press, 1995), The Arms Production Dilemma: Contraction and Restraint in the World Combat Aircraft Industry (MIT Press, 1994), Cutting Conventional Forces (IDDS, 1989), Peace Resource Book (Lexington Books, 1985), The Price of Defense (New York Times Books, 1979), and Resources Devoted to Military Research and Development, An International Comparison (SIPRI, 1972).
has contributed to Scientific American, International Security, Technology Review, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, World Policy Journal, and other journals. She is the editor of the forthcoming IDDS annual survey, ArmsWatch 2005: Global Trends, Prospects, and Policy Options. Forsberg worked at SIPRI, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, starting in 1968, and was a regular contributor to the SIPRI Yearbook of World Armaments and Disarmament, writing on US and Soviet nuclear weapons, until 1979. Her article on "US Estimates of Soviet Military R&D Spending," published in the second SIPRI Yearbook, caused the US Defense Department to publicly withdraw unreliable estimates of such spending.
    In 1980 Forsberg wrote the "Call to Halt the Nuclear Arms Race," the four-page manifesto that launched the national Nuclear Weapon Freeze Campaign. After founding the national Freeze Clearinghouse as an IDDS project, she chaired the Freeze Campaign’s Advisory Board in 1980–84.
    In September 1988, building on a multi-year research program on ways to reduce the risk of conventional war, Forsberg co-chaired a international conference on the topic with Soviet Academician Yevgeny Primakov, head of the Institute on the World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), who became Soviet Foreign Minister soon thereafter. Forsberg and other US participants, including former US ambassadors to talks on Mutual and Balance Force Reductions Stanley Resor and Jonathan Dean and RAND Sovietologist Dr Ted Warner, met with senior Soviet Foreign and Defense Ministry officials to discuss confidence-building measures that might be taken by the USSR prior to start of talks for a Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Several of the measures they proposed were implemented by Soviet President Gorbachev between October 1988 and March 1989.
    In November 1989, shortly before President George H W Bush's first meeting with Gorbachev, Forsberg gave a briefing at Camp David on US-Soviet arms control issues to President Bush and his foreign policy and security Cabinet officials, including Vice-President Quayle, Secretary of State Baker, Chief of Staff Sununu, National Security Advisor Scowcroft, CIA Director Gates, and National Security Council staff members Bob Blackwill and Condoleezza Rice. In 1995 Forsberg was appointed by President Clinton to the Director's Advisory Committee of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
    In 2001 Forsberg participated in three conferences in Seoul on the future of North-South Korean and US relations, hosted by the South Korean Institute for Strategic Studies, by the South Korean National Defense University, and by a coalition of peace groups.
    In 1983 Forsberg received a five-year MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in recognition of her work in defense studies and arms control. She has received honorary doctorates from the University of Notre Dame and Governors State University (IL). Since 1975 she has given well over 1000 public lectures on peace, arms control, and disarmament issues throughout the United States and in several dozen other countries. Forsberg has also given testimony for the US Congress, lectured at West Point, the Air Force Academy, the US National Defense University, the German equivalent (Fuhrungsakademie), and the Swedish Parliament, and conferred privately with senior government officials in a number of countries.

Friday Panel 4-5 pm: Long-term Goals for Security Regimes

Dr Hayward Alker, Security Communities
Professor, University of Southern California
Dr Alker teaches at the University of Southern California as the John A McCone Professor of International Relations, and at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University. His areas of interest include: international relations, especially world order and disorder, international organization, critical security studies, peace research; epistemologies and methodologies of social and political inquiry; especially discourse analysis and political communication processes, computational hermeneutics, text models, argumentation logics, scientific historiography, cultural studies; artificial intelligence and complex adaptive systems models of international relations and other social systems. He is the author of Rediscoveries and Reformations: Humanistic Methodologies for International Studies (1996), and many other books, monographs, book chapters, and articles.

Randall Forsberg, Global Action to Prevent War (see above)

Dr Saul Mendlovitz, UN Constabulary Force
Professor, Rutgers School of Law; Chairman, International Steering Committee of Global Action to Prevent War
Dr Saul Mendlovitz obtained a BA from Syracuse University, and an MA and JD from the University of Chicago. Mendlovitz is a former member of the IDDS Board of Directors. Currently, is a professor at the Rutgers School of Law, where he joined the faculty in 1956. Professor Mendlovitz is the founding director of the World Order Models Project and chairman of the International Steering Committee of Global Action to Prevent War. Global Action is a transnational coalition of individuals, civil society organizations, and states promoting a comprehensive political and legal program which aims over the next three to four decades to drastically reduce armed violence, war, internal armed conflict, and genocide. He holds membership on various boards, including the Arms Control Association, Global Education Associates, the Law and Humanities Institute, and the America-Israel Council for Israeli Palestinian Peace. Professor Mendlovitz has written and spoken extensively on issues relating to international law and the promotion of a just world order. His most recent works include Preferred Futures for the United Nations, and A Reader on Second Assembly and Parliamentary Proposals.

Friday Panel 5-6 pm: Post-9/11 Approaches to Security

Dr Graham Allison, Keeping Weapons of Mass Destruction Out of Terrorists’ Hands
Director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, KSG, Harvard
Dr Allison received a BA, Magna Cum Laude from Harvard College, and went on to get a BA and MA, with First Class Honors in philosophy, politics and economics from Oxford University. He received a PhD in political science from Harvard, and has received honorary doctorates from Davidson College, Uppsala University (Sweden), and the University of North Carolina. Currently, Allison is Douglas Dillon Professor of Government as well as Director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Earlier he was the Dean of the Kennedy School (1977-1989). In the first term of the Clinton Administration, Allison served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Policy and Plans, coordinating DOD strategy and policy towards Russia, Ukraine, and the other states of the former Soviet Union. His Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (1971), released in an updated and revised second edition in 1999, ranks among the best sellers in political science with more than 300,000 copies in print. Other recent books include Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material (1996) and Realizing Human Rights: From Inspiration to Impact (2000), and Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe (2004).

Dr Neta Crawford, Counter-Proliferation and Preventive War
Professor, Boston University
Dr Crawford received a doctorate in political science from MIT. As an IDDS staff member before her graduate studies, Crawford worked in the Freeze Clearinghouse in the early 1980s, authored the second volume of the World Weapon Database, Soviet Military Aircraft (1987), and wrote sections of the Arms Control Reporter. Crawford is currently Professor of Political Science and African American Studies at Boston University. She is on the editorial board of the American Political Science Review and is a member of the Governing Council of the American Political Science Association and the Advisory Board of the Project on Defense Alternatives. She is also a member of the Slavery and Justice Committee at Brown University where, until last June, she was an Associate Professor (Research) at the Watson Institute for International Studies, in charge of their program on Global Ethics. Prior to that she was an Associate Professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, a Peace Fellow at Radcliffe's Bunting Institute in 1998-1999, and a postdoctoral fellow at the Watson Institute in 1994-1996. In 1999, she co-edited How Sanctions Work: Lessons from South Africa. Professor Crawford has published many articles in scholarly journals, news media, and magazines on international relations and security, economic sanctions, humanitarian intervention, and ethics and international organization. Her most recent book, Argument and Change in World Politics: Ethics, Decolonization, and Humanitarian Intervention (2002), won the American Political Science Association Jervis and Schroeder prize for Best Book in International History and Politics in 2003.

Dr Cindy Williams, Planning and Paying for America’s Global Role and Homeland Security
Principal Research Scientist, MIT Security Studies Program
Dr Williams holds a PhD in mathematics from the University of California, Irvine. Before joining MIT, she was Assistant Director for National Security at the Congressional Budget Office, where she led the National Security Division in studies of budgetary and policy choices related to defense and international security. Dr Williams has served as a director and in other capacities at the MITRE Corporation; as a member of the Senior Executive Service in the Office of the Secretary of Defense; and at RAND. Her areas of specialization include the national security budget, command and control of military forces, military personnel policy, and nuclear weapons. She is the editor of two books: Filling the Ranks: Transforming the U.S.Military Personnel System (MIT Press 2004) and Holding the Line: U.S. Defense Alternatives for the Early 21st Century (MIT Press 2001).

Dr Steve Miller, The Future of Security in Post-Soviet States
Senior Fellow, Belfer Center on Science and International Affairs, KSG, Harvard
Dr Miller did his undergraduate degree at Occidental College in Los Angeles, and received a MA in Law and Diplomacy (MALD) and a PhD in international relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Miller is co-chair of the US Pugwash Committee, a member of the Committee on International Security Studies (CISS) of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Council of International Pugwash, the Advisory Committee o the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Scientific Committee of the Landau Network Centro Volta (Italy) and formerly a member of the Council of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). At the Kennedy School of Government, Miller serves on the steering committees of the Kokkalis Program on Southeastern and East-Central Europe and of the Harvard Ukrainian Project. He is director of the International Security Program, editor-in-chief of the quarterly journal International Security, and co-editor of the International Security Program’s book series, BCSIA Studies in International Security. Previously, he was a Senior Research Fellow at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and taught defense and arms control studies in the Department of Political Science at MIT. He is co-author of the recent monograph, War with Iraq: Costs, Consequences, and Alternatives (2002) and a frequent contributor to Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Miller is editor or co-editor of some two dozen books, including, most recently, Offense, Defense, and War (2004), The Russian Military: Power and Policy (2004), Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict ( rev., 2001), and The Rise of China (2000).

Friday Panel 6-7 pm: New Threats and Responses

Courtney Stewart, Radiological Weapons: Threats and Responses
Research Associate, IDDS, and Research Assistant, Managing the Atom project, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, KSG, Harvard
Ms Stewart received a BA in political science and history from UCLA, where she wrote honors theses for both majors. Her political science thesis, Arsenal of Democracy: US arms transfers to Sub-Saharan Africa in the post-Cold War, earned honors; and her history thesis Waking the Sleeping Bruin: An Examination of the UCLA Campus Experience During the Vietnam Antiwar Movement, was honored with the Appleby Prize for Best American History Undergraduate Thesis, and earned Highest Honors. Currently, as a Research Associate at IDDS she is a contributing author and assistant editor for the IDDS monthly reference journal Arms Control Reporter. In addition, she is responsible for a comprehensive database and analysis of worldwide ballistic and cruise missiles, which will be included in the forthcoming IDDS survey ArmsWatch 2005: Global Arms Trends, Prospects, and Policy Options. As a Research Assistant for Harvard's Managing the Atom project, she is working on an article on radiological weapons.

Dr Clark Abt, Preventing or Limiting Pandemics
Founder and Chairman Emeritus, Abt Associates
After receiving a BS in industrial engineering and an MA from Johns Hopkins and serving five years as a flying officer in the Air Force, Dr Abt directed the Advanced Studies Department at Raytheon Missile Systems Division, where he led the design of the first space-based anti-ballistic missile defense system and the first computer model of global military-political-economic conflict. He received a PhD in political science from MIT in 1965 and that year founded Abt Associates Inc, a leading employee-owned policy research and international development firm with over 1100 employees worldwide. He served as President until 1985 and Chairman until 2005. Dr Abt has taught at Johns Hopkins, Harvard, Boston University, and the University of Massachusetts.
     The author of ten books on social and economic policies and advanced technologies, as well as many articles, Dr Abt is an Associate of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, and a director of the UN Association of Greater Boston, the Physicians for Social Responsibility (Boston Chapter), and the Boston Landmarks Orchestra. For the last five years, he has served pro bono as a half-time high school teacher and tutor for students at risk in the Boston public schools, and as a member of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Smallpox Preparedness Advisory Committee. He has recently written articles on the following topics: "The Future of Energy," "The Economic Impact of Bioterrorist and Nuclear Terrorist Attacks on Freight Transport Systems in an Age of Seaport Vulnerability," "A Biodefense Assessment," "Bird Flu Pandemic Preparedness," and "Public Health and Poverty Threats to World Economy and Security."

Dr David Wright, The Debate over Space Weapons
Co-Director and Senior Scientist, Global Security Program, Union of Concerned Scientists
Dr Wright received a PhD in theoretical condensed matter physics from Cornell University in 1983, and worked as a research physicist for five years before beginning to work full-time on security issues. Currently, Wright is co-director and senior scientist in the Global Security Program at the Union of Concerned Scientists in Cambridge, and a research scientist in the Program on Science, Technology, and Society at MIT. In recent years, his primary focus has been on technical issues of ballistic missile defense, missile proliferation, and space security. Most recently, he co-authored The Physics of Space Security, published in 2005 by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. A second major focus of his work has been helping to increase the number of technical analysts worldwide who work on security issues. Since 1990 he has been a co-organizer with Lisbeth Gronlund and George Lewis of the International Summer Symposiums on Science and World Affairs. For this work and his technical analysis, he was awarded the American Physical Society's Joseph A Burton Forum Award in 2001.

Dr Judith Reppy, Bioweapon Threats and Responses
Professor of Science and Technology Studies, Cornell
Dr Reppy received a PhD in Economics at Cornell University in 1972, and has taught at Cornell since that time. She is currently a professor in the Department of Science and Technology Studies and Associate Director of the Peace Studies Program. Her recent research concerns issues surrounding bioterrorism and biosecurity. Over the last three decades Reppy has studied the defense industry in the USA and Europe, technology transfer, dual-use technology, and security and peace issues. She has been a leader in the US and international Pugwash organization, and has participated in many joint research and education projects with scholars from other countries. Her recent publications include: The Earth Sciences in the Cold War (2003), Regulating Biotechnology in the Age of Homeland Security (2003), The United States and Asian Security (2002), and The Place of the Defense Industry in National Systems of Innovation (2000).

Saturday 9:15 am: Welcome

Rev Amy McCreath, Symposium Co-host
Coordinator, Technology and Culture Forum, MIT
Rev McCreath studied international relations and African history at Princeton University, where her interest in development issues spawned from a year she spent working in rural Kenya. This experience influenced her to take a theological root in seminary, and has led her to become the Episcopal Campus Minister at MIT and Coordinator of the Technology and Culture Forum. Her involvement in the IDF arises from a commitment to living and promoting the central values of the baptismal covenant, which are justice, peace, and the promotion of human dignity.

 Dr Randall Forsberg, Symposium Co-host and Nuclear Freeze Co-founder   (see above)

Saturday Panel 9:30-10:45: The Nuclear Freeze at 25—Lessons for Grassroots Outreach

Randy Kehler, Co-founder, National Nuclear WeaponFreeze Campaign
Co-founder and former director of the Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign, Randy is a veteran peace and social justice activist. During the Vietnam War he was imprisoned for noncooperation with the draft and in 1989 his family's home in Western Massachusetts was seized by the IRS as a result of his and his wife Betsy Corner's re-direction of their federal "war taxes" to the homeless and victims of U.S. war-making abroad (an episode portrayed in the film "An Act of Conscience"). During the 1990's, in order to promote full public financing of election campaigns, Randy co-founded the Working Group on Electoral Democracy and later the Washington D.C.-based organization Public Campaign. After several years on a "working sabbatical" as a home health aide with the elderly, he is currently in the process of designing an educational campaign, focusing on youth, around the history, philosophy, and practice of "active nonviolence."

Pam Solo,Co-founder, National Nuclear Weapon Freeze Campaign; Founder and President, Civil Society Institute
Pam Solo began her public interest career in the 1970s by co-founding and co-directing the Rocky Flats campaign and the national Nuclear Weapons Facilities Task Force with Mike Jendrzejczyk of the Fellowship of Reconciliation. The campaign and task force aimed to expose the local hazards of weapon production facilities as a way for local communities to begin understanding the costs of the Cold War and the arms race. Solo was one of the founders and leaders of the national Nuclear Weapon Freeze Campaign from the time it was first broached at the Louisville KY annual meeting of the Mobilization for Survival in December 1979. She was part of a delegation that first discussed the Freeze with the Soviets in 1979. In the 1980s Solo was the campaign director for Congresswoman Pat Schroeder and managed her Presidential exploratory campaign. Pam represented the Freeze movement internationally and helped to found Freeze Voter. She worked for the Armed Services Committee professional staff working on burden sharing. In 1992 she founded the Civil Society Institute, which she continues to direct. She is the author of From Protest to Policy: Beyond the Freeze to Common Security and a recipient of a five-year MacArthur Foundation Fellowship.

Shelagh Foreman, Director, Massachusetts Peace Action

Dr Lawrence Wittner, Author, The Struggle Against the Bomb, a 3-volume history
State University of New York, Albany
Holder of a PhD in history from Columbia University, Dr Wittner is a professor of history at SUNY-Albany. He recently completed The Struggle Against the Bomb (Stanford University Press), a comprehensive history of public anti-nuclear weapon activities over the period 1945-1990 in three volumes:One World or None (1993), Resisting the Bomb (1997), and Toward Nuclear Abolition (2003). Other books include Rebels Against War (Columbia University Press, 1969, Temple University Press, 1984), Cold War America (Praeger Publishers, 1974, 1978), and American Intervention in Greece (Columbia University Press, 1982).
    Wittner was awarded the CharlesDeBenedetti Prize from the Council on Peace Research in History for the best artice on peace history (1989) and the Warren Kuehl Prize from the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations for the outstanding book on peace movements or internationalism (1995). A past president of the Peace History Society, Wittner has received major fellowships or grants from the American Council of Learned Societies, the MacArthur Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the United States Institute of Peace.

Saturday Panels 11 am-12 noon: Teaching about Security; Missile Defense

Dr Natalie Goldring, Teaching Security and Nonproliferation Issues
Visiting Professor, Georgetown University
Dr Natalie J. Goldring earned a PhD in political science from MIT with a specialization in defense and arms control. She also holds an MA in public policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and a BA in political science from Wellesley College. She is currently a Visiting Professor in the Security Studies Program at the Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. She is also Vice Chair and the immediate past chair of the Board of Directors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. She serves on the advisory boards of Women in International Security and 20/20 Vision, as well as the Board of the Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies and the editorial board of The Nonproliferation Review. She has written extensively on a wide range of international security topics, including conventional and nuclear weapons, the international arms trade, nonproliferation, and small arms and light weapons.

Dr Laura Reed, Teaching Nonproliferation and Security Issues
Visiting Research Fellow, MIT Security Studies Program
Dr Laura Reed is a former staff member and officer of IDDS. She first worked at IDDS as a research associate and circulation manager of the Arms Control Reporter (1982-1984), and in 1998 she served as project director of Global Action to Prevent War. Reed received a PhD in Political Science from MIT. In 2004-2005, she was a research fellow at Harvard's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. She has taught international relations at Mount Holyoke College, Boston College, and Wellesley College. In 2001-2003, she was assistant director of the Five College Program in Peace and World Security Studies (PAWSS), coordinating programs at Hampshire, Amherst, U Mass Amherst, Smith, and Mount Holyoke colleges. Formerly a program officer of the Committee on International Security Studies (CISS) of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Reed was Secretary of the US Pugwash organization when International Pugwash was honored with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995. Reed's research and writing focus on challenges to peace and security, the dangers posed by nuclear and biological weapons, and evolving security regimes. She is currently working on a book analyzing successful strategies to reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction.

Matthew Hoey,
Missile Defense and Weaponization of Space
Research Associate, Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies
Hoey is a contributing editor for the Arms Control Reporter, where he writes on missile defense and space issues. He will author a section on these topics in the forthcoming IDDS survey ArmsWatch 2005: Global Trends, Prospects, and Policy Options. Hoey is also responsible for IDDS public relations and marketing projects. Before joining the IDDS staff, Hoey worked on national, state and local political campaigns. He also worked in commercial marketing and volunteered with human rights organizations. He joined IDDS as an intern in September 2004 and became a Research Associate in December 2004.

Luncheon Honoring
Founding IDDS Board Member
Philip Morrison
and Raising Funds for a
Morrison Disarmament Fellowship,
12-1:45 pm

Philip Morrison (1915-2005)


John Pike,Remarks at the Morrison Luncheon
Founder and Director,
John Pike, one of the world’s leading experts on defense, space and intelligence policy, is Director of, which he founded in December 2000. is focused on innovative approaches to the emerging security challenges of the new millennium. Internationally renowned for his depth of knowledge on a broad array of issues, Pike is widely noted for his ability to translate complex technical information into concise and pithy soundbites. He has consistently provided insight and understanding of world affairs, military, space and satellite technology to policy makers, the press and the public at large. Pike previously worked for nearly two decades with the Federation of American Scientists, where he directed the Space Policy, Cyberstrategy, Military Analysis, Nuclear Resource and Intelligence Resource projects. Frequently asked to testify before Congress, Pike helped to establish the Space Policy Working Group, the Military Spending Working Group, and the National Campaign to Save the ABM Treaty. He has served on a variety of non-governmental boards and advisory committees and been a consultant to ABC, BBC, Fox, and other media organizations. He has advised or served on the boards of a number of public interest organizations. Pike is the recipient of numerous awards, including the 1991 "Public Service Award" of the Federation of American Scientists and 1997 Open Source "Award of the Golden Candle." The author of more than 200 studies and articles on national security and space, Pike began his career as a political consultant and science writer.

Paul Walker, Remarks at the Morrison Luncheon
Program Director, Legacy Program, Global Green USA
Paul Walker has directed the international Legacy Program of Global Green USA (, the US affiliate of Mikhail Gorbachev's Green Cross (, for the past ten years in Washington DC. The Legacy Program, in partnership with Green Cross Russia and Green Cross Switzerland, advocates and facilitates the safe and environmentally sound destruction of Cold War weapons stockpiles and full implementation of arms control and nonproliferation agreements. Walker was formerly a Professional Staff Member of the Armed Services Committee in the US House of Representatives where he served as a senior advisor to the Chairman and full committee. He also served as the Acting Director of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts. He holds a PhD in political science from MIT and an MA from Johns Hopkins School for Advanced International Studies. He most recently co-authored Deadly Weapons and Dire Needs: Exploring the intersection of social infrastructure and weapons demilitarization in Shchuch'ye, a struggling chemical weapons community (Washington DC, Zurich, & Moscow: Global Green USA/Green Cross, September 2005). He also co-authored The Price of Defense: A New Strategy for Military Spending (New York: Times Books, 1979) with the Boston Study Group, including Philip Morrison and Randall Forsberg, and several articles in Scientific American with Philip Morrison.

Charles Weiner, Remarks at the Morrison Luncheon
Professor Emeritus, MIT
Charles Weiner is Professor Emeritus of History of Science and Technology in the MIT Program in Science, Technology, and Society. He was Director of the Center for History of Physics at the American Institute of Physics from its founding in 1964 until he joined the MIT faculty in 1974. His research, writing and teaching focus on the political, social and ethical dimensions of contemporary science and the involvement of scientists in public controversies arising from their work. A new edition of his book Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections (with Alice Kimball Smith) was published in 1995. He is the editor of three other books in the history of science. His articles have dealt with the history of nuclear physics and controversies on the safety and ethical consequences of genetic engineering. Dr Weiner is presently completing a book on the history of social responsibility in science from the atomic bomb through contemporary genetic engineering. His first oral history interview with Philip Morrison was in 1967 and his last was in 2002.
    His courses at MIT included "Biotechnology and Society," "Engineers, Scientists and Public Controversies," and "American Science: Ethical Conflicts and Political Choices." He has been a Guggenheim Fellow and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He presented the Arthur Miller Lecture on Science and Ethics at MIT in 2002. In 2001 he was Visiting Professor at the University of California-Berkeley, and was appointed Regents Lecturer there in 2003.

Priscilla McMillan, Remarks at the Morrison Luncheon
Historian, Author
After receiving MA in Russian Area Studies at Harvard in 1953, McMillan worked as Moscow correspondent of the North American Newspaper Alliance in 1959-1960 and for The Reporter Magazine during the early 1960s. Her first book, Khrushchev and the Arts (MIT, 1965) concerned
de-Stalinization, Soviet writers and artists, and Khrushchev's struggle to hold onto power. A second book, Marina and Lee (Harper & Row, 1977) dealt with Lee Oswald's time in the Soviet Union and his motives in killing President Kennedy. McMillan's most recent book, The Ruin of J. Robert
Oppenheimer (Viking, July 2005) concerns the Oppenheimer security hearing of 1954 and the decision to develop the hydrogen bomb.

Herb Lin, Remarks at the Morrison Luncheon
Senior Scientist, National Acadmies of Science
Dr Lin received a PhD in physics in 1979 from MIT, where Phil Morrison supervised his thesis. Since 1991 he has been a senior scientist and senior staff officer on the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board at the National Research Council of the National Academies. In that position he has directed a number of major projects on on topics involving public policy and information technology, including: national cryptography policy, "Cryptography's Role in Securing the Information Society" (1996); the future of computer science, "Computing the Future" (1991); Defense Department command, control, communications, computing, and intelligence, "Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges" (1999); workforce issues in high-technology, "Building a Workforce for the Information Economy" (2000); protecting kids from Internet pornography and sexual exploitation, "Youth, Pornography, and the Internet" (2002); electronic voting, "Asking the Right Questions about Electronic Voting" (2005); and research frontiers at the interface of computing and biolog,y "Catalyzing Inquiry at the Interface of Computing and Biology" (2005). In 1986-1990 Lin was a staff scientist for the House Armed Services Committee, where his portfolio included defense policy and arms control issues. He has published articles in cognitive science, science education, biophysics, and arms control and defense policy.

Saturday Panel 2-3 pm: Proliferation Dangers

Dr Robert Legvold, Nuclear Weapons in Russia and the USA
Professor, Columbia University
A professor of Political Science at Columbia University, Dr Legvold specializes in the international relations of the post-Soviet states. He was Director of the Harriman Institute at Columbia from 1986 to 1992. Before that he served for six years as Senior Fellow and Director of the Soviet Studies Project at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. For most of the preceding decade, he taught at Tufts University, where he received a PhD in 1967. Legvold’s research interests focus on the foreign policies of Russia, Ukraine, and the other new states of the former Soviet Union, US relations with the post-Soviet states, and the impact of the post-Soviet region on the international politics of Asia and Europe. His most recent books are: Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution (co-authored, 2005); Swords and Sustenance: The Economics of National Security in Belarus and Ukraine (co-authored, 2004); Thinking Strategically: The Major Powers, Kazakhstan and the Central Asian Nexus (2002), Belarus at the Crossroads (co-authored, 1999), and Russian Security and the Euro-Atlantic Region (co-authored, 1999). He has also published extensively in scholarly journals. Legvold is a trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,and a member of the board or advisory board of the National Bureau of Asian and Soviet Research; the Committee on International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; the International Forum of the US-Russian Business Council; the Davis Center for Russian Studies at Harvard University; the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University; the Foundation for International Peace and Democracy led by Mikhail Gorbachev; Cambridge Soviet Paperbacks (Cambridge University Press); and Columbia’s Journal of International Affairs.

 John Pike Nuclear Programs of Iran, Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea  (see above)

Dr Jonathan Schell
, Nuclear Arms Reductions and Nonproliferation
Harold Willlens Peace Fellow, Nation Institute
Dr Schell received a PhD, Magna Cum Laude, from Harvard University in 1965 and did graduate work in Japanese at the International Christian University. Dr Schell’s reflective work on the nuclear question, The Fate of the Earth, which first appeared in three parts in the New Yorker, became a best-seller, and was hailed by The New York Times as “an event of profound historical moment.” It received the Los Angeles Times book prize, among other awards, and was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, and the National Critics Award. Schell’s other books include The Village of Ben Suc, The Military Half, The Time of Illusion, The Real War, and The Unconquerable World: Power, Nonviolence, and the Will of the People, which Richard Falk in The Times called “the most impressive argument ever made that there exists a viable and desirable alternative to a continued reliance on war.” Since 1998, he has been the Harold Willens Peace Fellow at the Nation Institute, where he is now based, and the Peace and Disarmament Correspondent for The Nation magazine. In 2000, he received the Lannan Award for Literary non-fiction.

Keynote Speaker Congressman Ed Markey (D-MA)

Edward J Markey, Congressman (D-MA)
Ed Markey has constructed an extraordinary legislative record since his first election to the United States Congress in 1976. As the highest Ranking Democrat on the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, he has shaped more than 20 years of telecommunications policy while continuing to champion consumer rights, health reform and disease prevention, the elimination of large monopolies, the conservation of environmental resources and the reduction of nuclear threats.


Saturday Panel 3:30-4:30 Psychological, Religious, and Cultural Responses to the Nuclear Threat

Dr Harvey Cox, Professor of Divinity, Harvard Divinity School
Professor, Harvard University
Dr Cox earned a PhD at Harvard University, where he is currently Hollis Professor of Divinity. He has taught at both at the Divinity School and in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard since 1965. An American Baptist minister, he was the Protestant chaplain at Temple University and the director of religious activities at Oberlin College; an ecumenical fraternal worker in Berlin with the Gossner Mission and Evangelical Academy; and a professor at Andover Newton Theological School. His research and teaching interests focus on the interaction of religion, culture, and politics. Among the issues Cox explores are urbanization, Jewish-Christian relations, theological developments in world Christianity, and spiritual movements in the global setting. He is a prolific author and has most recently published When Jesus Came to Harvard: Making Moral Decisions Today. His Secular City (1965) became an international bestseller and was chosen by the University of Marburg as one of the most influential books of Protestant theology in the twentieth century.

Dr Robert Jay Lifton, Psychiatrist, Author, Harvard Medical School
Visiting Fellow and Lecturer in Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School
Before moving to Cambridge in 2002, Dr Lifton was distinguished professor of psychology and psychiatry at John Jay College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. For more than forty years as a writer, investigator, and psychiatrist, he has used the skills of a researcher and the imagination of a healer of the mind to confront some of the most disturbing events of our times. As a witness, he analyzes how men and women lose and recreate their humanity in extreme situations. One book on this subject, co-authored with Erik Markuson, is The Genocidal Mentality: Nazi Holocaust and Nuclear Threat. Lifton's book Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima won a National Book Award. His most recent books are Superpower Syndrome: America's Apocalyptic Confrontation with the World and the reissued Home from the War: Learning from Vietnam Veterans, with a new preface on the war in Iraq.

Dr Alan F Kay, Founder, Public-Interest Polling
Dr Kay spent two years in the US infantry during World War II, and seven months as a Japanese language interpreter in occupied Japan. Majoring in mathematics, he earned a BS from MIT in 1948 and a PhD from Harvard in 1952. In 1954 Kay co-founded a military research and development firm, which he sold in 1963. He then founded AutEx, where he was CEO from 1966 to 1979. A supplier of marketplace systems to industry, AutEx was the first "B2B" e-commerce company, providing, among other things, pre-Internet email. In 1978, concerned about the state of the world, Dr Kay turned from traditional commercial business to become a “social entrepreneur,” serving as a donor and board member of policy organizations and an investor and advisor to start-up companies pioneering energy efficiency and pollution technologies.
In 1987 Kay founded Americans Talk Security, a bipartisan public opinion research project, focusing on national and international security. Using this project to develop the art and science of public-interest polling, in 1990 Kay created the Americans Talk Issues Foundation (now a project of the AH Foundation, co-founded with wife Hazel Henderson), to strengthen and publicize new techniques for developing policy positions that have broad support among both the public and bipartisan teams of experts. Dr Kay is author of Locating Consensus for Democracy, Spot the Spin – the Fun Way to Keep Democracy Alive and Elections Honest, and many articles on business, government, and military topics, focusing on developing and supporting major social innovations (see
    In the public interest sector, Kay founded Business Alert to Nuclear War, which later merged into Business Executives for National Security. He is a long-time board member of the Center for Defense Information, and has been a director of the Public Interest Polling Project of the Congressional Institute for the Future, advisor to many international security, environmental policy, and educational organizations, and commissioner of the Global Commission to Fund the UN. He was President of the Institute for Defenseand Disarmament Studies from 1985 to 1990.

Thomas Moore, Author, Care of the Soul and other books
Thomas Moore is an author, psychotherapist, and lecturer who has published many books and articles in the areas of archetypal and Jungian psychology, religion, mythology, relationships, and the arts. Moore lived as a monk in a Catholic religious order for thirteen years. A former professor of psychology, he has a PhD in religious studies from Syracuse University, an MA in theology, and an MA in musicology. Some of his books include Soul Mates, The Soul’s Religion, Care of the Soul, The Re-Enchantment of Everyday Life, The Education of the Heart, The Soul of Sex, Original Self, and Meditations.

Saturday Panel 4:30-5:30: Turning the Tide— Routes to a Safer Future

Joseph Cirincione, Arms Control Goals for 2006-2008
Director, Non-Proliferation Program, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Cirincione is an honors graduate of Boston College and holds a MS with highest honors from the Georgetown School of Foreign Service. He is the Director for Non-Proliferation at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and author of Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats, and co-author of Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security. He teaches at the Georgetown University Graduate School of Foreign Service. Cirincione worked for nine years in the US House of Representatives on the professional staff of the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Government Operations. He is the author of numerous books and articles on proliferation and weapons issues, including WMD in Iraq: Evidence and Implication. Cirincione is the publisher and editor of the internet site, and he organizes and chairs the annual Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, the premier event in the field.

Dr David Cortright, Building on Our Successes
President, Fourth Freedom Forum
Dr Cortright is President of the Fourth Freedom Forum in Goshen, Indiana, and a research fellow at the Joan B Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame. Dr Cortright has served as consultant or adviser to various agencies of the UN, the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, the International Peace Academy, and the John D and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation. Along with George A Lopez, he has provided research and consulting services to the Foreign Ministry of Sweden, the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, and the Foreign Ministry of Germany. He has written widely on nuclear disarmament, nonviolent social change, and the use of incentives and sanctions as tools of international peacemaking.

Dr David Krieger, Awakening American – Before It Is Too Late
Founder and President, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
Dr Krieger is a graduate of Occidental College, and holds MA and PhD degrees in political science from the University of Hawaii as well as a JD from the Santa Barbara College of Law. He is a founder of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, and has served as President of the Foundation since 1982. Under his leadership, the Foundation has initiated many innovative and important projects for building peace, strengthening international law, and abolishing nuclear weapons. Dr Krieger has lectured throughout the United States, Europe and Asia on issues of peace, security, international law, and the abolition of nuclear weapons. He has received many awards for his work for a more peaceful and nuclear weapons-free world. Dr Krieger is the author and editor of many books and articles on peace in the Nuclear Age. His most recent books are: Hold Hope, Wage Peace and Einstein-Peace Now! He is also the author of a book of peace poetry, Today Is Not a Good Day for War.

Susan Shaer, Reaching Voters and Congress
Executive Director, Women’s Action for New Directions
Susan Shaer has been a political activist for over thirty years, consulting with progressive candidates, pioneering networks to encourage women to run for elected office in Massachusetts, directing the Clearinghouse for Women Candidates at the Institute of Politics at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and managing and consulting on campaigns. Shaer trained women candidates in Mexico and Guyana, and worked with nonprofits in Kosovo as a consultant for National Democratic Institute. Representing WAND, she has chaired Win Without War, and headed Project Abolition, the National Coalition for Peace and Justice and other national projects on arms control and disarmament. She is part of the implementation team to reconstruct the peace and security community.

Saturday Reception 6-8 pm: TheNuclear Freeze at 25—Celebration, Education, Inspiration

Dr Helen Caldicott, Physician, Author, Speaker, Activist
Founder and President, Nuclear Policy Research Institute
Helen Caldicott has been recognized around the globe as one of the most visible, effective advocates for peace and nuclear disarmament. She is the president of the Nuclear Policy Research Institute, an organization that seeks to create a consensus of commitment to end the nuclear age by mounting public education campaigns, establishing a pervasive presence in the mainstream media, and sponsoring high-profile symposia. She was the founding president of the revived Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) public-interest group (1978-1983) and the founding president of Women’s Action for Nuclear Disarmament (WAND). Dr Caldicott has authored five best-selling books, most recently The New Nuclear Danger: George W Bush's Military-Industrial Complex. She has received many honors and awards, including the 2003 Lannan Foundation Prize for Cultural Freedom. She has also been the subject of several documentary films, including the Academy-Award winning, Eight Minutes to Midnight, and Helen's War, winner of the Sydney Film Festival Award for best documentary.

Rev William Sloane Coffin, Introducing the Interreligious Network to Eliminate Nuclear Weapons
The Rev William Sloane Coffin served as a chaplain at Yale University for 18 years and was one of seven “Freedom Riders” arrested during the Civil Rights Movement for protesting segregation laws. He has also led New York’s Riverside Church as a senior minister, engaging communities in social activism on both local and national levels. He is a dedicated social activist who has committed his life to the pursuit of universal civil and human rights and international peace. In the 1980s he was a leader in the movement against nuclear weapons; in 1987 he resigned from Riverside Church to pursue disarmament activism full time, saying then that there was no issue more important for a man of faith. He became president of SANE/FREEZE (now Peace Action), the largest peace and justice organization in the United States at the time. He retired from that position in the early 1990s, and has since taught and lectured across the United States and overseas. He has cautioned that we are all living in "the shadow of Doomsday," and has urged that people turn away from isolationism and become more globally aware. Rev Coffin has written several books, among them The Courage to Love, A Passion for the Possible and his most recent work, Credo.

Rev Dr Nick Carter, former National Freeze Co-Chair and Executive Director, Sane/Freeze
President, Andover Newton Theological School
An ordained American Baptist minister, Carter has been a social activist for over 35 years. He was the controversial pastor of the First Baptist Church in Beverly, Massachusetts, for 11 years and was the recipient of the Dahlberg Peace Award in 1986. In the 1980s he became co-chair of the Massachusetts Nuclear Freeze Campaign and then went on to be one of the National Co-Chairs of the Nuclear Freeze. In 1988 he became the Executive Director of the newly formed Sane/Freeze: Campaign for Global Security (later renamed Peace Action), a position he held into the early 1990s. In the mid-1990s Carter led the CTBT organization and the Non-Proliferation Treaty Coalition; and he authored “Who’s who and what’s what in nuclear non-proliferation” (1992) before returning to his calling in the religious community. Carter is now the President of Andover Newton Theological School, the nation’s oldest independent graduate school of theology. Andover Newton has joined with its neighbor, Hebrew College, to create the Interreligious Center for Public Life. The two schools co-sponsor the International Summer School for Religion and Public Life, which was previously held in Bosnia and Jerusalem; in 2006 it will be in Boston.


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